Follow in the footsteps of King Edward III at Sluys, King Edward and his son Edward Prince of Wales, the Black Prince, at Crécy, Edward the Black Prince at Poitiers and Henry V at Agincourt on our tour to the battlefields of the Hundred Years War. Visit the battlefields at Sluys, Crécy, Poitiers and Agincourt in the company of one of our Expert guides, follow the battles and see how they developed. See the city of Rouen which is associated with Joan of Arc's trial and death.
The Hundred Years War was a series of battles waged from 1337 to 1453 that pitted the House of Plantagenet against the House of Valois for control of the Kingdom of France. It began following the death of Charles IV of France died without a direct male heir when the two main rival claimants of the French throne: Edward Plantagenet, King of England, and Philip of Valois clashed.
The Battle of Sluys
The first clash of the Hundred Years War was at the Battle of Sluys which took place on 24th June 1340 in the now silted up estuary that forms the Zwin Nature Reserve northeast of Bruges. In this medieval naval battle the French fleet was almost completely destroyed by the English and Edward III gained control of the English Channel. The battle was followed by the Siege of Tournai and this first phase of the Hundred Years War ended with the Truce of Espléchin.
A tour of the Battle of Sluys would normally form part of a larger Hundred Years War Tour, but it could also form a interesting one-day tour visiting:
- Blankenberge Beach
- Zwin Nature Reserve
- Sluys Harbour
The Battle of Crécy
Six years after the Battle of Sluys and Siege of Tournai, Edward III invaded France. On 12th July 1346 his forces landed near St Vaast-la-Hougue from where Edward moved south before capturing Caen and then turned eastwards towards the Low Countries. The French tried to bar their route by destroying the crossings over the River Seine, but when the English reached Poissy they found the crossing only partially destroyed. Edward had this repaired and was soon heading towards Flanders again. The English crossed the River Somme at Blanchetaque and headed north towards Calais.
The larger French army finally caught up with the King Edward's English near the town of Crécy-en-Ponthieu. Faced with certainty of battle Edward III deployed his forces in three battles in a defensive position centred on the Windmill. The French army arriving at Crécy attacked piecemeal rather than as a consolidated force. The Battle of Crécy was disastrous for the French who lost heavily, the English casualties were very light only one tenth of those of the French army. Following the Battle of Crécy, King Edward proceeded north unopposed to besiege the city-port of Calais which he finally captured after an eleven month siege in 1347.
A tour covering the Battle of Crécy is an interesting two-day tour. Alternatively it could form part of a larger Hundred Years War Tour, which could include visiting:
- St Vaast-la-Hougue
- Église St-Vigor, Quettehou
- Église St-Pétronille de la Pernelle
- Château de Sauveur-le-Vicomte
- The Medieval Arcade, Carentan
- L'Abbaye-aux-Hommes, Caen
- The site of the River Odon Bridge, Îsle-St-Jean, Caen
- Château de Guillaume le Conquérant
- Abbaye aux Dames, Caen
- Poissy — the crossing over the River Seine
- Blanchetaque — the crossing over the River Somme
- Lanterne des Morts, Crécy
- Monument Jean de Luxembourg, Crécy
- Crécy Grange
- Crécy Windmill — King Edward III Command Post
- The English Line — Edward, the Black Prince's Division
- Centre of the English Line
- The English Line — Left Flank
- The Sugar Beet Factory
- Vallée aux Clercs
- The French Approach
- Croix de Boheme
- Abbaye de Valloires
The Battle of Poitiers
In 1348, the Black Death spread across Europe and it was not until 1356 that King Edward's son, Edward Prince of Wales, the Black Prince, invaded France from Gascony. The Black Prince won a great victory over the French in the Battle of Poitiers on 19th September 1356 during which King John II of France was captured. This left his son Charles, the Dauphin, as regent of France.
A tour covering the Battle of Poitiers is an excellent one-day tour. It could also be combined with visiting the battlefields of the Battle of Lunalonge, Battle of Taillebourg, Siege of Saintes, Battle of Castillon and Battle of Auberoche to form a three-day or long-weekend tour. Alternatively it could form part of a large Hundred Years War Tour. A Battle of Poitiers tour could include visiting:
- Abbey de Nouaillé-Maupertuis
- Place de Prince Noir
- la Gué de l'Homme Bridge — The English left flank
- The battlefield park
- The centre of the English line and Edward the Black Pince's position
- Salisbury's Line
- English Archers' Hedge Line
- The initial French line
- The French line of attack through Bernon
- Captal de Buch — the English Cavalry attack
In 1364, King John II died in London and his son Charles succeeded him as King of France. In January 1371 the Black Prince returned to England following his campaigning in Aquitaine and Castile due to his health deteriorating and on 8th June 1376 Edward Prince of Wales died. Edward III who by now was elderly and also in poor health died the following year on 21st June 1377 to be succeeded by his grandson, the Black Prince's son, Richard II who was still a child. Richard's reign was fraught with problems at home and he showed little sign of pressing his claim for the French throne. The treaty at Brétigny had ceded large holdings in France to Edward III, but the French under the leadership of Bertrand du Guesclin retook these and by the time of Charles V's death in 1380 the only continental possession held by the English crown was Calais.
King Richard II was ultimately deposed by his cousin Henry of Bolingbroke who on 13th October 1399 was crowned Henry IV, King of England. Henry planned to resume hostilities with France, however, as he was constantly plagued by financial problems and rebellion throughout his reign this did not materialise.
On 20th March 1413 Henry IV died and was succeeded by his son Henry of Monmouth. King Henry V was crowned on 9th April 1413 at Westminster Abbey and he resurrected the claim of the English Kings to the throne of France. He sailed for France on 11th August 1815 and two days later landed in Normandy and laid siege to Harfleur.
The Siege of Harfleur, King Henry's march across France and the Battle of Agincourt
The Siege of Harfleur lasted longer than King Henry had expected and the town did not capitulate until 22nd September 1815. Henry V's army remained at Harfleur until 8th October and, with the campaign season coming to an end, Henry decided to march most of his army through Normandy to the city-port of Calais. The French army blockaded the crossings over the River Somme. The English army finally crossed the River Somme south of Péronne and resumed their journey northwards. The French initially shadowed the English intent on building up their numbers before engaging in battle. By the 24th October 1815 the two armies had reached the small community near the castle at Azincourt and had come face to face.
On the 25th October 1815, King Henry deployed his army in the narrow strip of open ground formed between the woods of Tramecourt and Agincourt. Facing them at the northern end of the battlefield, the French barred his route to Calais. The French, who were still waiting for additional men to arrive under the Dukes of Brabant, Anjou and Brittany, were content to sit and wait. For three hours the two sides stood looking across the battlefield at each other. Henry, in the knowledge that to stand and wait was to the enemy's advantage, finally moved his men forward.
When King Henry's men were about 300 yards (270 m), just within extreme bowshot from the French line, he halted his force and the longbowmen dug in their stakes. When all was ready he gave the order to loose and the first flight of arrows soared skywards. Stung by the bit of the arrows the French cavalry charged. Charles d'Albret, the Constable of France, seeing his cavalry surge forward led the dismounted knights and men-at-arms towards the waiting English. St Crispin's Day 1415 was to be disastrous for the French who were thoroughly defeated in the Battle of Agincourt.
A tour covering the Siege of Harfleur, King Henry V's march across France and the Battle of Agincourt is an interesting two-day tour. Alternatively it could form part of a larger Hundred Years War Tour and could include visiting:
- Béthencourt-sur-Somme and Voyennes — Crossing the River Somme
- River Crossing at Blangy-sur-Ternoise
- The Calais Road (D104)
- The Agincourt memorials
- The battlefield
- The French Buirial Pit at Tramecourt
- Chateau de Tramecourt
- The site of the Chateau d'Azincourt
- Centre Historique Médiéval
Following the Battle of Agincourt King Henry V retook much of Normandy, including Caen, in 1417, and Rouen on 19 January 1419. This returned Normandy to English rule for the first time in two centuries. On 21st May 1420, Henry met with King Charles VI and they signed the Treaty of Troyes. King Henry married Charles' daughter Catherine of Valois and their heirs were to inherit the throne of France. The Dauphin was declared illegitimate and Henry later entered Paris where the agreement was ratified by the Estates-General, the French Parliament. Henry died on 31st August 1422 to be succeeded by his nine-month old son.
The Rise and Fall of Jeanne d'Arc
The disinherited Charles, Dauphin of France, continued his fight for the French throne. By 1428 it looked as though all the English had to do was seize Orléans and Henry V's dream of a united English and French throne would become a reality. Orléans was invested on 12 October 1428 and after six-months it looked as if the English were going to win, but the siege collapsed nine days after the arrival of Jeanne d'Arc. She raised the morale of the French troops defending the city and they attacked the English redoubts, forcing the English to lift the siege.
The Siege of Orléans makes an interesting one-day tour. It could be combined with a tour covering the Battle of Patay to make a two-day tour or alternatively it could form part of a larger Hundred Years War Tour. The locations visited could include:
- Tour Blanche
- Collégiale St-Pierre-le-Puellier
- Rue de Bourgogne
- Place du Châtelet
- The Medieval Tower
- Pont Georges V
- The site of the medieval Pont des Tourelles
- Fort Tourelles
- Quai du Fort des Tourelles
- Bastille des Augustins
- Rue Royale
- Maison de Jeanne dArc
- Place du Martroi
- Rue Sainte-Catherine
- Place Abbé des Noyers
- Hôtel des Créneaux
- Beffroi, Orléans
- Cathedrale Sainte-Croix d'Orleans
- Hôtel Groslot
Inspired by Jeanne d'Arc, the French took several English strongholds in the Loire Valley forcing the English to retreat. Near the village of Patay the French cavalry broke through the English defences and swept through the English army. The French were victorious and the Dauphin's army to march to Reims where he was crowned Charles VII King of France on 16th July 1429.
A tour covering the Battle of Patay is an interesting one-day. It could be combined with a tour covering the Siege of Orléans to make a two-day tour or alternatively it could form part of a larger Hundred Years War Tour. The locations visited could include:
- The Medieval Gate at Jargeau
- Statue of Jeanne d'Arc, Jargeau
- Château de Meung-sur-Loire
- La Collégiale Saint-Liphard, Meung-sur-Loire
- The Clock Tower, Beaugency
- Statue of Jeanne d'Arc, Beaugency
- Tour Cesar, Château Dunois
- Église Notre-Dame de Beaugency
- Tour du Diable (Devil's Tower), Beaugency
- Pont de Beaugency
- La Croix Faron
- Le Moulin, Lingerolles
- Église St-Andre, Patay
- Statue Jeanne d'Arc, Patay
After the elimination of the English threat to the Loire valley, Jeanne d'Arc pressured the Dauphin to seek his rightful throne as king of France and two months later, amidst great pageantry, she stood beside the new king at his coronation as Charles VII in Reims Cathedral, the traditional location for crowning of the Kings of France.
In March 1430, Jeanne d'Arc left the court to help with the defence of Compiègne against attack by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, an English ally. On 23rd May she led a sortie against the besiegers and became trapped by the men of Count Jean II of Luxembourg when the gates closed during her force's retreat. She was taken prisoner and Charles made no attempt to rescue his heroine, mainly due to court intrigue against her by those jealous of her increasing influence. In November, Jeanne d'Arc was sold by Count Jean II of Luxembourg to the English for the sum of 10,000 livres tournois. Jeanne was then moved by the English to Rouen, which served as their main headquarters in France.
In Rouen, Jeanne d'Arc was put on trial for heresy. The trial commenced on 9th January 1431 and was carried out by a tribunal that was composed entirely of pro-English and Burgundian clerics, and overseen by English commanders including the Duke of Bedford and the Earl of Warwick. On 30th May 1431 Jeanne d'Arc was brought to Vieux-Marché in Rouen where she was tied to a tall pillar to be burnt at the stake.
A tour covering the capture of Jeanne d'Arc, her subsequent trial and execution in Rouen forms an interesting three-day or long-weekend tour on its own. Alternatively it could form part of a large Hundred Years War Tour and could include visiting:
- Église St-Jacques, Compiègne
- Statue of Jeanne d'Arc, Compiègne
- Tour of Jeanne d'Arc, Compiègne
- Pont St-Louis, Compiègne
- Statue of Jeanne d'Arc, Pont Solferino, Compiègne
- Église St-Etienne, Clairoix
- Château Tower, Beaulieu-les-Fontaines
- Statue of Jeanne d'Arc, Beaulieu-les-Fontaines
- Tour Jeanne d'Arc, Château de Beaurevoir
- Place de la Madeleine, Arras
- Statue Jeanne d'Arc, Arras
- Château de Lucheux
- Belfry, Lucheux
- The Bell Tower, St Riquier
- The Abbaye Church, St-Riquier
- Château de Drugy
- Château du Crotoy
- Statue of Jeanne d'Arc, Le Crotoy
- Porte Guillaume le conquérant, St-Valery-sur-Somme
- Plaque Jeanne d'Arc, Hôtel de Ville d'Eu
- Bridge of the Virgin, Martin-Église
- Église Saint Jean-Baptiste, Bosc-le-Hard
- Tour Jeanne d'Arc, Rouen
- Jeanne d'Arc memorial, Rouen
- Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Rouen
Following Jeanne d’Arc's execution the fortunes of war turned against the English. The English camp became increasingly divided as each of its leaders began to follow separate strategies. At the Congress of Arras in 1435 they were outmanoeuvred with their Burgundian allies switching sides to support the French. On 14th September 1435 John, Duke of Bedford died. One week later the congress concluded with the Treaty of Arras, which left England isolated. Thereafter the English situation in France began a steady decline and by 1453 when the English were defeated at the Battle of Castillon all that was left was the city-port of Calais. England and France remained formally at war for another 20 years, but the Battle of Castillon is considered to be the last battle of the Hundred Years War.
A two-day tour covering the Battle of Lunalonge, Battle of Taillebourg, Siege of Saintes, Battle of Castillon and Battle of Auberoche, the final battles of the Hundred Years War is possible, but these are better combined into a three-day or long-weekend tour that also covers the Battle of Poitiers. Alternatively it could form part of a large Hundred Years War Tour. This would include visiting:
- Château d'Auberoche
Touring the battlefields of the Hundred Years War can be done in a number of ways. It can be done using a number of small tours or these can be combined to form larger tours and even a single all encompassing tour. The choice is yours and whatever option you may wish to follow we can design a tour that will suit your requirements. To book your tour of the Hundred Years War click the button below and tell us what you want to do.
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